1. While most penguins are monogamous, they spend most of their year apart.
  2. There are 17 to 20 species of penguins, depending on which scientist you ask.
  3. Some prehistoric penguin species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human.
  4. The oldest known fossil penguin species lived in the early Paleocene epoch
    of New Zealand,
    about 62 million years ago.
  5. Penguins can jump up to 6 feet (1.8 m) out of the water.
  6. 1 in 50,000 penguins are born with brown rather than black plumage.
  7. Penguins have an organ near the eye that filters salt from the water out of their system.
  8. In order to discover that penguins sleep more deeply in the afternoon, scientists crept up on sleeping penguins at different times of the day and poked them with a stick until they woke up.
  9. The Emperor Penguin is able to dive to depths of over 500m and stay under water for up to 27 minutes.
  10. Roles are reversed on Emperor Penguin: the Male incubates the egg while she goes out to feed.
  11. Magellanic penguins always return to same mate after solo journeys totalling 200,000 miles.
  12. Scientists can locate colonies of Penguins from space just by looking for dark ice patches of penguin poop.
  13. In 2008, Norway knighted a penguin.
  14. In 2009, snipers were deployed in Australia to protect a colony of little penguins from predators.
  15. There are no penguins
    in the Arctic.
  16. Seals like to have sex with penguins.
  17. Penguins generally only lay one brood. The exception is the little penguin, which can raise two or three broods in a season.
  18. When penguin mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to "steal" another mother's chick.
  19. The most northerly penguins live in the Galapagos Islands.
  20. Penguins are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing.
  21. It is illegal for U.S. citizens to eat penguins.
  22. Most penguins swim underwater at 4 to 7 mph.
  23. Penguins spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans.
  24. Penguins don't have teeth. Instead, they have backward-facing fleshy spines that line the inside of their mouths.
  25. Once a year, penguins replace their old feathers by new ones.
  26. The largest living species of Penguins is the Emperor Penguin. They are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh about 35 kg (77 lb).
  27. Penguins can't taste sweet or savory flavors, only sour and salty ones.
  28. The African penguin is also known as the jackass penguin, due to its donkey-like braying sounds.
  29. Many species of penguins gift mates with rocks.
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